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The Ground Sampler is an Architect Artifact being used to collect and analyze samples from the rock below.

Multiple Ion Cubes can be found near both of the Ground Sampler in the Tree Spires and East Arctic.

Databank Entry

Ground Sampler
Precursor artifact ground sampler frame.png

This alien artifact appears to be a programmable robot that collects and analyzes samples of soil and rock. Scans indicate the presence of equipment closely analogous to human-built lasers and spectrograph analysis equipment.

Source: Scan the Ground Sampler